Facts About Rice

PARTS OF RICE:
a] Husk or Hull [Outer most layer]
b] Bran [Next layer to the hull]
c] Endosperm
d] Germ
There are long grain rice, medium grain rice and short grain rice.
LONG GRAIN RICE is about 4/5 times as long as it is wide. The length varies between 7 to 9 mm
MEDIUM GRAIN RICE is about 3 times as long as it is wide. The length varies between 5/6 mm
SHORT GRAIN RICE is about 3 times as long as it is wide. They are bellowing 5 mm length.

Rice is an excellent food to help keep the body healthy. Rice has the following nutritional benefits.
1] Excellent source of carbohydrate
2] Good energy source
3] Low Fat
4] Low salt
5] Cholesterol free
6] Low sugar
7] Gluten Free                               
8] Additives free
9] Preservative free

WHITE RICE:
White rice is also raw rice. It is what we get after removing the husk, bran and germ from the whole grain through milling process. After milling the rice is polished to get white or bright or shiny appearance. When the bran layer is removed, the rice loses its fibre and protein. When germ is removed, the rice loses B Vitamins and some fat. Now the remaining portion of the rice is the Endosperm, making white rice having only the Starch.
Hence the milling and polishing process remove important nutrients from the whole grain. This alters the flavour, texture and appearance of the rice. However helps to prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. Therefore, white rice leaves the consumers vulnerable to the neurological disease beriberi due to deficiency of thiamine [Vitamin B]

BROWN OR RED RICE:
The outermost layer of hull or husk has been removed. So it is a hulled or un-milled rice leaving the layer of the bran beneath the husk, gives the colour of brown or red depending upon the varieties of paddy grain. The cooked brown rice has slightly chewy texture and a nut like flavour, but more nutritious than white rice. Brown rice and white rice have similar amount of calories and carbohydrates. The main difference between the two forms of rice lies in the processing and nutritional content.    
All indications are that both Red Rice and Brown Rice have the same nutritional benefits. The difference is that Red Rice tastes better and is not genetically modified so far. On the other hand Brown rice is often genetically modified and is little dull to eat with none of the richness or nutty flavour of the Red Rice.
RED RICE helps to reduce cholesterol, control blood sugar, regulates weight, anti-oxidant and promotes bowl health. Carbohydrates 15 %, Fibre 12 %, Iron 11 %, and Protein 0.08 %
However the above nutritional values differ in accordance with paddy grain varieties on account of soil conditions, environment, irrigation and fertilizers used for cultivation.

STEAM RICE:
The paddy grain is filled in a tank having water, it is soaked for 3 to 4 hours, then the water has been discharged, again steam with heat has been applied and under this process the paddy grain is cooked either by steam or boiling, then the paddy grain is discharged to a drier, dried at required temperature for 6 hours. Now the paddy grain is ready for milling process.
After steam treatment of paddy the milled rice obtains a cooking quality, colour and taste as aged rice. There is no need for storing for 10 to 12 months. Hence steaming is a process of special technology for improving the quality characteristics of rice. In the steaming process, 80 % of the vitamins and minerals contained in the paddy grains move or penetrate inside the rice kernels/grains [endosperm of the grains] and the rice grains become less brittle. However cooking time of steamed rice is 20 to 30 minutes due to the fact that the grains become harder and slower boiled. Comparing to white rice or raw rice, steamed rice never sticks together after cooking / boiling. It also remains the same taste and crisp even after re-heating the meals.    

PARBOILED RICE:
Parboiling and steaming are two different mechanical processes. Parboiled- literally means partially boiled [the paddy grain]. Parboiling process involves the hydro thermal treatment of paddy grains before milling. The advantages of parboiling process stems from the gelatinization of rice starch and hardening of rice kernel. As a result, breakage losses during milling of rice can be minimized. Further after removal of the husk, the rice grain appears yellow in colour because of parboiling process. The parboiling process is with physical, chemical and nutritional changes in the rice.

Advantages are:-
1] Milling yield is higher and quality improved as there are fewer broken kernels than the raw rice.
2] The preservation of parboiled paddy and milled rice is longer and better than in the raw state.
3] Germination is no longer possible and the endosperm has a compact texture making it resistant to attack by insects and micro organism.
4] The milled rice remains firm during cooking and its texture becomes un-sticky.        
5] A great amount of water is absorbed during cooking, causing the rice to swell.
6] Its nutritional value is enhanced due to the higher content in vitamins and minerals that have penetrated into the endosperm during parboiling process.
7] Lower free fatty acids in rice bran and higher oil content in rice bran.